lishment of universities and medical schools which would serve the entire region. Larger states are under less compulsion to seek regional cooperation for economic purposes.
Though large states have more resources and, therefore, more options to choose from, there is also likely to be a greater differentiation of political and economic interests seeking to influence the choice of options. The more differentiated the interests, the more difficult it is to maintain the kind of personalized rule that so often characterizes small states. This is not to say that a single individual or a small oligarchy cannot govern; it does suggest, however, that for a small group to govern a large state may require more coercion than is often necessary for an oligarchy governing a small state. The temptation and tendency to establish authoritarian governments is particularly great in large, poor societies—four out of the five largest developing countries in the world are under authoritarian rule. However, the task of managing such states is particularly difficult, as both Ayub Khan and Sukarno have discovered. In recent years even the Chinese have demonstrated how difficult it is for an oligarchy to govern an area as large and populous as China.
Effects of Dispersed Populations. Governments of large territories with small and dispersed populations have a wide range of problems. Not only are government revenues likely to be small, but there are few economies of scale. A country with a dispersed population and low density will require a large number of bureaucrats per citizen to penetrate the countryside. If resources are too small to maintain an adequately large bureaucracy, revenue collection will remain small, local communities will depend more heavily upon traditional structures of authority to settle disputes, and the ability of the central government to play an active role in the development process, even in the process of establishing a school system, is apt to be limited. There are a substantial number of countries in the world, mainly in Africa, which are poor, large in area, and inhabited by small and dispersed populations. The following states, many of which are larger than France (with an area of more than 200,000 square miles) have less than ten people per square kilometer: Central African Republic, Congo, Mauritania, Chad, Mali, Niger, Somali, Angola, Mozambique, Rhodesia, Malagasy, Algeria, Libya, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Laos, and Mongolia.
Algeria has a fairly large population and one that is not widely dispersed throughout the entire territory. Rhodesia is a relatively well-to-do country, at least as far as its white citizens are concerned, and, therefore, can afford to maintain a bureaucracy which can penetrate large portions of the countryside and establish a measure of governmental control comparable to what is found in more densely populated states. But most of the states on this list have populations so dispersed, communications and transportation so underdevel- sought to cooperate in the estab-lls and motivation are primary, and local resources and population density arc relatively less important.